The Constitution of the State of New Jersey is the clearest of all, here it is.
New Jersey is one of the original 13 colonies.
JERSEY STATE CONSTITUTION 1947
Updated Through Amendments Adopted in November 2003
DISTRIBUTION OF THE POWERS OF GOVERNMENT
The powers of the government shall be divided among three distinct branches, the legislative, executive, and judicial. No person or persons belonging to or constituting one branch shall exercise any of the powers properly belonging to either of the others, except as expressly provided in this Constitution.”
Then in the Federal Court Decisions on Fraud:
United States v. Tweel and
United States v. Prudden, both cases held that silence is an admission of fraud or guilt.
U.S. v. Tweel, 550 F. 2d. 297, 299, 300 (5th Cir. 1977); U.S. v. Prudden, 424 F.2d. 1021, 1032 (5th Cir. 1970), cert. denied, 400 U.S. 831, 91 S. Ct. 62, 27 L. Ed. 2d 62 (1970) (Silence can only be equated with fraud when there is a legal and moral duty to speak or when an inquiry left unanswered would be intentionally misleading. We cannot condone this shocking conduct… If that is the case we hope our message is clear. This sort of deception will not be tolerated and if this is routine it should be corrected immediately).
US (Cranch 1) 137 (1803):
“The Constitution of these
United States is the supreme law of the land. Any law that is repugnant to the Constitution is null and void of law.”
U.S. 425 (1886):
“An unconstitutional act is not law; it confers no rights; it imposes no duties; affords no protection; it creates no office; it is in legal contemplation, as inoperative as though it had never been passed.”
U.S. 1, 78 S.Ct. 1401 (1958): Defined treason as follows:
“No state legislator or executive or judicial officer can war against the Constitution without violating his undertaking to support it.”
Fraud. An intentional perversion of truth for the purpose of inducing another in reliance upon it to part with some valuable thing belonging to him or to surrender a legal right. A false representation of a matter of fact… which deceives and is intended to deceive another so that he shall act upon it to his legal injury. … It consists of some deceitful practice or willful device, resorted to with intent to deprive another of his right, or in some manner to do him injury… (Emphasis added) –Black’s Law Dictionary Fifth Edition, page 594.
U.S. 350, 371-372 (1987), quoting
U.S. v Holzer, 816 F.2d. 304, 307 (7th Cir. 1987) (Fraud in its elementary common law sense of deceit… includes the deliberate concealment of material information in a setting of fiduciary obligation. A public official is a fiduciary toward the public,… and if he deliberately conceals material information from them he is guilty of fraud).